Sociology, or the Science of Institutions John Wesley Powell

ISBN: 9781230419398

Published: September 12th 2013

Paperback

30 pages


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Sociology, or the Science of Institutions  by  John Wesley Powell

Sociology, or the Science of Institutions by John Wesley Powell
September 12th 2013 | Paperback | PDF, EPUB, FB2, DjVu, audiobook, mp3, RTF | 30 pages | ISBN: 9781230419398 | 3.14 Mb

This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1903 edition. Excerpt: ... Statistics StatisticsMoreThis historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated.

1903 edition. Excerpt: ... Statistics Statistics is the science of the enumeration of human beings and the material things which they produce. Here we have to consider what is meant by enumeration or counting. First, counting is determination of kind, then it is the determination of the number of the kind.

Classification consists in determining the kind and in considering all of that kind in giving it a name- but enumeration consists in considering that series of a kind which is determined by some human purpose. The conventional series is always considered in conventional numbers, while the natural series or class is all of the kind. Kind and form are concomitant, and thus forms may be counted, but usually such counting would lead to unwieldy, impracticable, or even inconceivable numbers- hence representative numbers are devised.

The device used in reducing vast numbers to practical numbers is measurement. We do not count the grains of wheat, but we measure them in bushels. We do not count the blades of hay, but we measure hay in tons. We do not count the drops of molecules of wine, but we measure wine in gallons or by some other unit. Thus, measurements are adapted to the state in which the article exists, as gaseous, fluid, or solid, and the units of the different states are made commensurate.

Animals may be counted without measurement, but they also may be measured- the method of measuring them is by weight. Other methods adopted in statistics for measuring forms is the measurement of spaces- but in weighing, a force is measured--the force of gravity. This method of measuring does not give units in terms of motion, but units in terms of one mode of motion, which is gravity- therefore the units are in terms of force.

There are other units of measurements devised...



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